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  1. ceg4048

    Wallichii substitute!

    Hi, I guess it's necessary to define what you mean by "truly high light". I reckon a PAR value at a certain distance below the surface is the best way to go. I mean really, a lot of T. Barr bashing goes on but have you never seen his tanks? You cannot pick and choose examples of supposed...
  2. ceg4048

    Wallichii substitute!

    Good plan. You can even float the plant at the surface for a few days to allow a better transition. Many don't realize that in the natural habitats, plants are not just dunked under water. The rains come and the plant has the ability to adjust to the submerged state as the water level rises. We...
  3. ceg4048

    when to start using ferts

    There is a huge difference between a CO2 vs a non-CO2 tank. It is the same relative difference between a Formula 1 car vs a farm tractor. Although Paulo is correct that plants need light, plants in a non-CO2 tank do not need nearly as much light as most folks seem to think. There is a lot of...
  4. ceg4048

    Wallichii substitute!

    Mate, to be honest, I wasn't even aware of this myth until I read the OP. I wonder if folks are confusing wallichii with macandra? R. macandra is one of the handful of plants that are reported to struggle in high KH. Of course, people are so lazy and cavalier when it comes to...
  5. ceg4048

    Wallichii substitute!

    Hi KirstyF, It's exactly as you say. Yes this was one of my tanks and nothing special was needed other than the realization that CO2/flow/distribution are the most important factors in any tank. The more light that you use the more critical these factors become. I would avoid...
  6. ceg4048

    Oase Biomaster 600 inlet & outlet

    Many roads lead to Rome. One should experiment to find the most convenient and effective solutions. The plants will tell you immediately what works and what doesn't. They never lie. Cheers,
  7. ceg4048

    Wallichii substitute!

    Wow, where is that written? R. Wallichii in water GH >26 and KH>20 Cheers,
  8. ceg4048

    Lighting decision

    Hello, Lamp manufactures, with the exception of the very high priced marine brands, rarely produce PAR data for the consumer. There really is no direct conversion of lumens to PAR, simply because lumens is a parameter based on human vision, which has nothing to do with the way plants use...
  9. ceg4048

    Any diy root tabs?

    I agree with Hufsa, in that no one necessarily "needs" root tabs as long as the water column is being dosed. Of course, it's always better to have nutrition in both the water as well as in the sediment, but as mentioned, root tabs often contains ammonia as their source of nitrogen and if the...
  10. ceg4048

    What settings for non co2 low light plants with AI Prime freshwater lights

    Hello, In all tanks, but especially non-CO2 tanks, lighting should be very low to begin with, probably 20% power. When you dump plants under water they have the priority of avoiding being drowned. Their physiology has to change in order to deal with the water. After a few weeks they can...
  11. ceg4048

    Lean dosing pros and cons

    No, sorry, high pH water has nothing to do with the free CO2 in water. This false doctrine persists despite all the obvious evidence and information to the contrary. Gases typically follow Henrys Law, which states that at a given temperature the solubility of a gas in a solvent is a function of...
  12. ceg4048

    Juwel Rio - Lighting Options

    Advanced plants really do not care about exotic and expensive bulbs. The reason advanced plants are advanced is because they require better implementation of CO2. Cheers,
  13. ceg4048

    Getting desperate with my new setup, plants dying

    When it comes to lighting, less is actually more. High intensity makes plants grow more quickly - but it also makes algae and all other problems grow more quickly. Cheers,
  14. ceg4048

    I'm Unsure Which Direction To Go In..

    Any supplementation of CO2, whether by gas or by liquid should automatically be considered high tech. This is completely untrue and you are strongly advised to avoid this critical error made by many hobbyists. Less light is better. Learn to grow plants with the light that comes with the tank...
  15. ceg4048

    Getting desperate with my new setup, plants dying

    Hello, Melting plants are a typical symptom of CO2 deficiency. The higher the light energy the higher the demand for CO2. You may wish to reduce the intensity even more, perhaps down to 25%. Another thing you may wish to try is to move the CO2 diffuser as close to the intake pipe as...
  16. ceg4048

    Some signs of Algae

    Hello, Apologies for the confusion. As far as plants are concerned the expression "poor CO2" always means that there is a problem with the ability to capture an to process CO2 from the water column. Plants can virtually never have too much CO2, however, the animals tolerance of CO2 is...
  17. ceg4048

    Some signs of Algae

    This is a typical symptom of poor CO2. It is only perfectly natural when CO2 is poorly executed. Cheers.
  18. ceg4048

    Algae ID/ solutions.

    Hi castle, Apologies if I missed your previous post asking about this. It's a well worn road and these are two completely different subjects when we talk about causality. Many moons ago the claim that nutrients cause algae in a planted tank was falsified by the mere fact that...
  19. ceg4048

    GreggZ Planted Rainbow Tank!

    Welcome Gregg. Reading through your interview was a pleasure. Nice plants as well. Here is a spy photo taken of you during your discussion with the moderators at plantedtank.net Cheers,
  20. ceg4048

    Sunlight and background color?

    I agree with mort in post #10. Sunlight causes algae only when CO2 and nutrition are inadequate. In fact your risk of algal blooms will have more to do with your Chihiros wrgb than with sunlight penetrating your background. Choose the background that is the most pleasing and forget about window...
  21. ceg4048

    Dry ferts outside UK

    Hi, It's really not necessary to find any special supplier. Any garden center usually will sell KH2PO4 and KNO3, as well as micronutrient mix. Farmers have been using these generic products for a very long time and we have been using them for decades. If you have access to Amazon or ebay...
  22. ceg4048

    Algae ID/ solutions.

    Hi, No, it could not. Nutrients don't cause algae. Yes, this is a definite possibility. Cheers,
  23. ceg4048

    Buffer chemistry (Aquasoil)

    Hi Cedric, To understand my answer to this question an understanding of what "pH" actually is will be required. Many hobbyists worry about pH at the wrong times and this causes more problems than if they did not worry about it. Have a look at this post, which attempts a...
  24. ceg4048

    Cryptocoryne Curling leaves

    Hi, No idea about relevant youtube videos but you hardly need one. Damaged leaves should be cut low on the stem. There are a lot of propaganda out there suggesting the addition of microbial fungus in the sediment, but this is hardly necessary. CO2 is the most important ingredient...
  25. ceg4048

    Buffer chemistry (Aquasoil)

    Hello, If KH=0 then buffering=0. Adding food combined with higher KH tap water during water changes will raise the KH over time. Cheers,
  26. ceg4048

    Stunted Bolbitis and fert dosing tweaks ideas.

    Hello, These are all symptoms of CO2 deficiency. In a low tech tank there is not much that can be done, other than placing the plant in shaded areas or reducing the overall lighting level. Cheers,
  27. ceg4048

    Testing kit recommendations

    Yes, that's right, I meant psychological. Understanding the importance of water chemistry does not automatically mean that testing is necessary. It's exactly as Darrel points out. The problem is not in the recognition of the importance of water chemistry but in the implementation of testing and...
  28. ceg4048

    Testing kit recommendations

    Could it be that the vehement people had previously wasted their time, money and energy using test kits and then managed successful tanks after they stopped using test kits? Could it be that they are attempting to prevent newbies from repeating the experience of wasting these precious resources...
  29. ceg4048

    Tropica specialized on RO water.

    As mentioned by Happi, dosing EI inherently means that there is no need for testing. Additionally, trying to micromanage ratios of nutrients is probably the cause of unhappiness. You should simply dose the suggested amounts and forget about ratios. Ratios really does not help to grow better...
  30. ceg4048

    Discus temperature plant help.

    Hi, As long as there is sufficient CO2 there really not many plants that will suffer at 28/29 degrees. Higher temperatures increase the plants metabolism, but these temperatures also are even more conducive to algal blooms. A good practice is to limit the light intensity in order to arrest...
  31. ceg4048

    Just a quick question about converting to low tech

    Hi, You can simply leave the lights off and restrict dosing nutrients, assuming the tank is not in a sunny area. The plants will lose weight and the dim available light will help to reduce the chances of algal blooms. When you do restart the light, obviously make sure it's a lot less than...
  32. ceg4048

    Sodium silicates in tap

    Hello, No, you should not. Instead, you should worry about the possibility that your lighting is too high, or a myriad of other issues that trigger algal blooms. Cheers,
  33. ceg4048

    Phosphate in tapwater

    Hi, Yes, in the EI scheme of things this is normal. One of the reasons is that much of the PO4 is re-used in various metabolic cycles, whereas generally, the N from NO3 is consumed to a much greater extent by the construction of components such as proteins and so forth. Phosphorous is...
  34. ceg4048

    Phosphate in tapwater

    Yes. No. Add as much PO4 as you like. There are no repercussions of high PO4, only of low PO4. There is no "Goldilocks Zone". Required nutrient uptake is a function of light intensity, temperature and nutrient availability. It therefore changes as these variables change. Fretting about high...
  35. ceg4048

    phosphate with EI - higher than 3 ppm?

    Hi John, No worries mate. I understand that we all are trying to get a grip on cause and effect. OK, I can see why some may suspect Fe (either in excess or deficiency) since there is a possible issue of Iron Phosphate precipitation. I'm paraphrasing from Barr's conclusion here: If...
  36. ceg4048

    phosphate with EI - higher than 3 ppm?

    GSA is caused by any combination of poor PO4 and poor CO2. If you are adding the EI target amounts of KH2PO4 then it is unlikely that low PO4 is a factor. One then has to evaluate CO2/flow/distribution. EasyCarbo=CO2, therefore poor CO2 has to be under immediate suspicion. If you are only...
  37. ceg4048

    Too much or not enough light?

    Hello, BBA is a CO2 deficiency related algae. There are many BBA threads available, and in general, correct attention to CO2 techniques, as well as to flow/distribution is necessary. Cheers,
  38. ceg4048

    Staurogyne Repens in aquarium near a window? Ideal?

    Hello, Algae can result if the sunlight intensity is too high for the available nutrient loading and CO2 concentration level. This is the same as would occur if the the lighting were artificial. What you can do is to cover the back and sides of the tank to reduce the overall...
  39. ceg4048

    Volume instead of weight?

    Hello, One teaspoon of nutrients weighs approximately 6 grams. The weights obviously vary for each nutrient, but this is a fair approximation. Cheers,
  40. ceg4048

    EI nutrient targets vs. accumulated nutrient values

    Hello, As mentioned by other posters above, there really are no "correct" EI values. This way of thinking, forced by the results of spreadsheets, is one of the things I dislike the most about the calculators. I suggest that you study the background information provided in the EI dosing...
  41. ceg4048

    Hardness & algae

    Hi Angus, Well, algal blooms are symptoms of declining plant health. There is a relationship between algae and plants in our tank. It is a specific relationship and the relationship is different in different environments. That's why it's not a good idea to pull observations from...
  42. ceg4048

    Volcano mineral under inert substrate

    Aquatic plants can feed from any nutritious source, whether it be from the sediment or the water column. It's always beneficial, therefore, to have nutrients in both locations, but it is not compulsory. There are reasons many choose to have high nutrition in the sediment and very little in the...
  43. ceg4048

    Magnesium - dosing once or several times per week

    Yeah, both those numbers are insanely high, but it doesn't matter though, as none of these numbers will hurt. What's important is to understand how plants use nutrients instead of blindly following some number on a spreadsheet. You can grow excellent plants using numbers 1/100X of that. So for...
  44. ceg4048

    Volcano mineral under inert substrate

    Hi, Well it's not that I'm not a fan of volcanic products. What I'm not a fan of is the way in which they are marketed. The claims made by the suppliers are disingenuous as these rocks do not have any special characteristics which makes them any better that run-of-the-mill clay sediment...
  45. ceg4048

    Hardness & algae

    Hello Angus, Yes absolutely. There is no correlation whatsoever between water hardness and algal blooms. BGA normally indicates either a problem with low levels of nitrate or, as you mention, the buildup of organic waste, which can release ammonia/ammonium into the water...
  46. ceg4048

    Lean dosing pros and cons

    Well this sounds like a lot of twisting to me. Are you claiming that Amazonia does not leach nutrients into the water? Are you also now hiding behind twisted words? No one claims that NH3/NH4 doesn't fertilize. When we say that nutrients do not cause algae we are specifically referencing NO3...
  47. ceg4048

    Volcano mineral under inert substrate

    These are generally false claims because there is always circulation in the sediment. If you intend to put rooted plants in the tank then this is doubly unnecessary because plants oxygenate the sediment via their roots. We really never need to worry about circulation in the sediment and we do...
  48. ceg4048

    Alternanthera problems.

    As mentioned by John q, assumptions can be detrimental. if you determined the CO2 level by using the pH/KH/CO2 chart then the value is in error. Reliance on the chart will always get you in trouble because it will always overestimate the CO2 level in the tank for the reasons discussed in the...
  49. ceg4048

    Magnesium - dosing once or several times per week

    Hello, EI really does not specify Mg at all and there are no optimum amounts simply because the levels vary with different municipal water supplies. The 10ppm is very high and there is no way plants require 10ppm of Mg. Is it possible you have misinterpreted the value of 10ppm of MgSO4...
  50. ceg4048

    Tank Restart Questions

    Hello, BBA spores are likely to be in every tank in the world, so there is no point worrying about that. BBA blooms occur because of what we do or do not do in the tank as explained in the post=> cleaning dry algae from a used tank So you'll need to get a full understanding of the...
  51. ceg4048

    Lean dosing pros and cons

    This argument is not reasonable and giving an answer "yes" or "no" would also be unreasonable. Whenever someone has a problem in a tank it is first necessary to determine what it is that they are doing or not doing. The answer is not a choice of binary options. An analysis must be performed on...
  52. ceg4048

    New to EI

    Hello, It's a good idea to stop worrying about nitrates. Nitrogen is the second most important element (second only to CO2) and nitrate is not toxic at these concentration levels. I do not think it is a good policy to omit nitrate dosing at the beginning. The best practice is to add...
  53. ceg4048

    Looking for some advice on algae! New scaper

    Yes. Cheers,
  54. ceg4048

    Green water algae after no water change for 2 weeks (high tech)- how to treat root cause?

    He and I spoke briefly. We met in a phone booth. Along for the ride were Bill and Ted. It was their Excellent Adventure... Cheers,
  55. ceg4048

    Limnophila aromatica - The Rice Paddy Herb

    As stated previously, nutrients will never fix a CO2 problem. Your only effective course of action will be to reduce the light energy entering the tank. Whether that means disabling bulbs, or otherwise obfuscating the light via mechanical methods, or by adding floating plants. Cheers,
  56. ceg4048

    Black Spots on leaves

    Haha, thanks Michael. Too cold though! I'll be in a desert. Nice and warm...:cigar: Cheers,
  57. ceg4048

    Black Spots on leaves

    Hi Chris, Yeah, I was afraid of that. For some reason your tank seems to be on the borderline of BBA. If you still have the Excel then definitely resume the attack straight away. The placement of the spraybars looks OK. It's not clear which has the CO2. It should probably be the...
  58. ceg4048

    Black Spots on leaves

    Hi Sdogg, Well, pointing flows in opposite directions is not ideal. Hobbyists try to play ping pong with water all the time and this just isn't fun because water refuses to play. Having said that, in some tanks, due to the placement of objects in the tank, such as hardscape or...
  59. ceg4048

    Black Spots on leaves

    Hi Chris, Yeah, Lewis ran a heck of a race down in Brazil and Mercedes seem to have the faster car. Max's lead, while not insurmountable, seems a tall order with only a couple of races remaining. I don't think Lewis can pull it off but I'd be happy to have him prove me wrong. :)...
  60. ceg4048

    Limnophila aromatica - The Rice Paddy Herb

    Rotting stems, or the rotting of any part of any plant automatically implies poor CO2 uptake. Investigate gas injection rate, injection timing, as well as flow/distribution. Plants do not care whether they are in sand as long as you dose nutrients regularly. Cheers,
  61. ceg4048

    Alternanthera problems.

    Hello, BBA is a CO2 related algae. I no longer know what the term "DIY CO2" means. Originally, it meant the use of a yeast fermentation device, which is notorious for causing BBA due to it's poor delivery of CO2. If this is the case then I suggest you abandon these methods and consider...
  62. ceg4048

    Black Spots on leaves

    Hi Chris, As we discussed earlier, it's not really a good idea to point filter outlets at opposing directions. This normally leads to cancellation of flow. Splitters are always a potential problem because the two filter outlets always have slightly different back pressures, so the...
  63. ceg4048

    Green water algae after no water change for 2 weeks (high tech)- how to treat root cause?

    Hello, The root cause, as usual, is a CO2 deficiency which may not affect all the plants, but probably somewhere in the tank there is a deficiency. This may have been the result of the plants growing and causing blocked flow or blocked distribution. The green organisms at the surface...
  64. ceg4048

    Root tabs and/or liquid ferts

    As mentioned by the other posters, there is no requirement for root tabs if you intend to dose the water column. Since plants uptake nutrients from either location you can either use an nutritious substrate, such as ADA Aquasoil or insert nutrients into the substrate such as Osmocote/clone or...
  65. ceg4048

    Alternanthera Reineckii melting!

    Yes, these are all factors that have an effect in all systems. Although our glass boxes are not the same as natural systems, some natural processes do occur, however, since the level and diversity of organisms in the tank are limited, not everything that happens in a lake or river can occur in...
  66. ceg4048

    Dark Start, Ammonia and Ammonium

    Well, nothing drastic will happen. That will still be below the crossover point as shown on the chart, so most or all will be NH4. That is correct. The soft clay pellets are soaked in a nutrient solution. In order to mineralize the NH3/NH4 to NO3 the oven needs to be around 400 degrees.F. for...
  67. ceg4048

    Is it high light ?

    As explained many times previously, the difficulty with plants have nothing to do with how much light you have, but how effectively you can deliver CO2 to the plants. Each plant has a different ability to uptake CO2. This difference in ability is what distinguishes the difficulty. A useful...
  68. ceg4048

    Alternanthera Reineckii melting!

    Yes, correct, except we do not have rivers, lakes or coastal waters. We have a glass box that is synthetic and whose system has nothing to do with nature. Even in nature, depending on the specific location, eutrophication has varying effects. In some systems is causes algae, in other systems it...
  69. ceg4048

    Dark Start, Ammonia and Ammonium

    Hello, It's not as simple as just lowering the pH. In toxicology a general rule is that the concentration determines toxicity. The majority of folks using Aquasoil are also using CO2, which does lower the pH and they may still suffer toxicity as there is a LOT of NH4. In any case...
  70. ceg4048

    96 ppm of CO2, way too much ?

    Also, you are definitely doing or thinking something fundamentally wrong if you calculated 96ppm. How did you obtain this number? Cheers,
  71. ceg4048

    96 ppm of CO2, way too much ?

    No. The speed at which the gas escapes is more or less the same. What does change at 22 deg. is that the water will have a higher gas solubility than it does at 25 deg., which is a good thing. No. Cheers,
  72. ceg4048

    Light colour & algae

    Well, I think the first thing you need to do for your tests is to establish a control tank using basic, ordinary bulbs. That's what we here have done and that's why we, after using different bulbs, after more than a decade, can report that there has not been any meaningful differences in growth...
  73. ceg4048

    Hardness & algae

    Hello, What I can see from the photo you supplied is the yellowing of mature leaves. It is unlikely that this is a micronutrient deficiency as most micronutrients have very poor mobility within the plants. They accumulate in the leaves and they stay there. However, Nitrogen is a highly...
  74. ceg4048

    Light colour & algae

    Any high intensity light will damage aquatic plants if CO2 and nutrients are lacking. On the contrary, I've grown plants using Actinic lighting with no problems at all. You can't have your cake and eat it too. On the one hand you seem convinced blue light is bad for plants yet you also recognize...
  75. ceg4048

    Cyno question again (Non scientific mind.😂)

    Even if antibiotics remove the BGA it still does not reveal root cause. One of the causes of BGA is a high NH3/NH4 loading rate. Their Aquasoil is very high in Ammonium Nitrate, which does result in a high buildup unless frequent water changes are performed. This buildup is also present in tanks...
  76. ceg4048

    "Aquarium Science" has some new planted tank articles

    Exactly. He's aware of EI but has he tried it? Don't know. His claim is easy to falsify, right? EI dosers add too much ferts and don't get algae. We can add the appropriate nutrient to a tank experiencing algae and the bloom is reduced or eliminated, further falsifying the claim. Cheers,
  77. ceg4048

    Cyno question again (Non scientific mind.😂)

    BGA is primarily associated with poor nitrate levels. You have not stated exactly what steps you have taken. Is this a CO2 injected tank? If so step number 1 is to add more KNO3. Light bulb type has nothing to do with BGA unless you have too many bulbs. Initiate frequent and large water changes...
  78. ceg4048

    Hardness & algae

    Water hardness has nothing to do with algae. It is correct that there are many factors. Hardness is not one that warrants attention. On what basis have you concluded that the tank suffers Mg or Fe shortage? It's better to list the symptoms rather than to conclude a cause. Cheers,
  79. ceg4048

    Heater question

    Actually, the major factor in heaters failures is their repetitive ON/OFF cycling. That happens when the heater is over-powered for the tank. It's better to have a lower powered heater that stays on for a longer period and which experiences fewer cycles. Cheers,
  80. ceg4048

    "Aquarium Science" has some new planted tank articles

    Yeah, this is just more pseudoscience from The Matrix. I love the part about phosphorous's limited solubility. I wonder if the municipal water companies who dissolve PO4 in the systems are aware of this so-called fact. I never knew it was impossible to keep lots of fish in a planted aquarium...
  81. ceg4048

    Aquatic plants are plants with C4 or C3 photosynthesis?

    There is another category similar to C4, called CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism). CAM plants uptake CO2 at night and stores it as malic acid. Then extracts and uses the CO2 during the day. CAM plants are typically in arid terrestrial environments, but there are an aquatic versions in the genus...
  82. ceg4048

    Light colour & algae

    Exactly. This is the long and the short of aquarium lighting. What folks fail to understand is that LCP for plants is very low, somewhere between 10-20 micromoles. It's very unlikely that any bulb we use in the typical tank scenario produces energy below LCP at any location in the tank. As...
  83. ceg4048

    Light colour & algae

    Hello, This is not really true. You do not need full spectrum at all. This is the misconception that allows vendors to charge outrageous prices for their so called "full spectrum" bulbs. Plants have the ability to change the color of the incident light into other colors to fit their...
  84. ceg4048

    Bricks in aquascape

    I agree with Darrel. This is really not anything to worry about. I suggest that you just carry on and forget about the holes. Cheers,
  85. ceg4048

    New tank setup

    Hello, These are all symptoms of poor CO2. Since you are adding CO2 then you'll need to look at your flow/distribution. Your photo does not show how you are distributing the flow so it's not possible to comment. I would certainly NOT increase the light intensity as this makes the algae...
  86. ceg4048

    How often to deep clean a planted tank?

    Hello, BBA is a CO2 related algae. It is not directly related to sediment waste buildup. Dirty sediments in a CO2 enriched tank however can contribute to some types of algal blooms since there is a high ammonia content in the sediment. If the sediment is disturbed at a time other than...
  87. ceg4048

    Confirmation on start-up dosing with EI

    Hello, There is no need to make any adjustments. It's not clear why folks insist on making simple things more complicated. Just dose the suggested amounts and carry on. Whenever you do a water change dose the same amount that you would do when performing your normal water change. If...
  88. ceg4048

    Growth slowed?

    BBA is a CO2 related algae. It is NOT related to nutrients. Either increase the amount of Excel dosing or reduce the light intensity. Cheers,
  89. ceg4048

    Staghorn Algae How do I find the route cause ?

    Hello, This offers an insight into the root cause. This is primarily a CO2 related algae and the demand for CO2 is related to the light intensity. The salvinia helped to block some of the light, but it's removal increased the amount of light penetration. Reducing the duration is only...
  90. ceg4048

    Filter media, flow and algae

    No. You replace the carbon. Cheers,
  91. ceg4048

    Alternative to CSM+B

    Hi X3NiTH, I'd have to suspect some strange combination of events as I've never experienced or anything like the symptoms described, regardless of my use of either tap or RO. My municipal tap water supplier when I was living in UK was Thames Water - notorious for their poor...
  92. ceg4048

    How to read spectrum curve ?

    As oreo57 mentions, it is really only valuable as regards photography. It is not really something that we need to worry about. I never consider CRI or any other parameter of light bulbs other than turning them on over the tank and determining for myself whether I like the effects or not. As I...
  93. ceg4048

    Do you stabilize/buffer your RO water?

    I agree with Darrel and Wookii. There is no need to chase pH stability as neither plants nor fish really care. As stated, remineralize and let the pH do what it will. Cheers,
  94. ceg4048

    First algae alert ⚠️: Brown algae killing carpeting plants. Help!

    Hi erwin, This only happens when CO2 is less than perfect. I've kept tanks in a conservatory without even a speck of algae. Cheers,
  95. ceg4048

    How to read spectrum curve ?

    Well that's a very difficult question because each fixture is built a little differently and the angle that the reflector is positioned differs. So the light can be made to cast slightly more adrift of vertical. I've not experienced the condition you describe. If I have a blue light in the front...
  96. ceg4048

    First algae alert ⚠️: Brown algae killing carpeting plants. Help!

    These are classic symptoms of poor CO2. The DC should be green when the lights are first turned on. It would help to reduce the light intensity. Also, lowering nitrate in a planted tank is a really bad idea, although doing a lot of water changes is actually a GOOD idea, because that keeps the...
  97. ceg4048

    How to read spectrum curve ?

    Yes. Yes. Its really important to realize the truth about light bulbs. Only use bulbs that make the plants and fish look pretty. If you insist on using bulbs based on some urban myth about Kelvin temperatures you may wind up using bulbs that make the tank look ugly - and that's just not...
  98. ceg4048

    Alternative to CSM+B

    Hi Michael, Yes it's easy to pick the one that has more of everything unless that one is more expensive. Of all the powders, trace mix is usually the most expensive by far, perhaps not where you live, but around the world it can be expensive. What if your tank is 200 gallons...
  99. ceg4048

    Step down hose outlet to increase flow

    Hello, The mass flow rate, or, throughput of the pump can be limited by the smallest orifice size in the circuit. Take care when discussing flow to distinguish between velocity and mass flow as they are different. You can restrict the holes in a spraybar, for example and this will...
  100. ceg4048

    Filter media, flow and algae

    No, this isn't really true. Activated carbon does more good than harm because it has a high affinity for the Dissolved Organic Compounds that the OP is concerned about and has only a low affinity for trace elements. To make the term more concrete and less amorphous, think about dissolved urine...
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