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  1. ceg4048

    Buffer chemistry (Aquasoil)

    Hi Cedric, To understand my answer to this question an understanding of what "pH" actually is will be required. Many hobbyists worry about pH at the wrong times and this causes more problems than if they did not worry about it. Have a look at this post, which attempts a...
  2. ceg4048

    Buffer chemistry (Aquasoil)

    Hello, If KH=0 then buffering=0. Adding food combined with higher KH tap water during water changes will raise the KH over time. Cheers,
  3. ceg4048

    Testing kit recommendations

    Yes, that's right, I meant psychological. Understanding the importance of water chemistry does not automatically mean that testing is necessary. It's exactly as Darrel points out. The problem is not in the recognition of the importance of water chemistry but in the implementation of testing and...
  4. ceg4048

    Testing kit recommendations

    Could it be that the vehement people had previously wasted their time, money and energy using test kits and then managed successful tanks after they stopped using test kits? Could it be that they are attempting to prevent newbies from repeating the experience of wasting these precious resources...
  5. ceg4048

    Sodium silicates in tap

    Hello, No, you should not. Instead, you should worry about the possibility that your lighting is too high, or a myriad of other issues that trigger algal blooms. Cheers,
  6. ceg4048

    Phosphate in tapwater

    Hi, Yes, in the EI scheme of things this is normal. One of the reasons is that much of the PO4 is re-used in various metabolic cycles, whereas generally, the N from NO3 is consumed to a much greater extent by the construction of components such as proteins and so forth. Phosphorous is...
  7. ceg4048

    Phosphate in tapwater

    Yes. No. Add as much PO4 as you like. There are no repercussions of high PO4, only of low PO4. There is no "Goldilocks Zone". Required nutrient uptake is a function of light intensity, temperature and nutrient availability. It therefore changes as these variables change. Fretting about high...
  8. ceg4048

    Hardness & algae

    Hi Angus, Well, algal blooms are symptoms of declining plant health. There is a relationship between algae and plants in our tank. It is a specific relationship and the relationship is different in different environments. That's why it's not a good idea to pull observations from...
  9. ceg4048

    Hardness & algae

    Hello Angus, Yes absolutely. There is no correlation whatsoever between water hardness and algal blooms. BGA normally indicates either a problem with low levels of nitrate or, as you mention, the buildup of organic waste, which can release ammonia/ammonium into the water...
  10. ceg4048

    Hardness & algae

    Hello, What I can see from the photo you supplied is the yellowing of mature leaves. It is unlikely that this is a micronutrient deficiency as most micronutrients have very poor mobility within the plants. They accumulate in the leaves and they stay there. However, Nitrogen is a highly...
  11. ceg4048

    Hardness & algae

    Water hardness has nothing to do with algae. It is correct that there are many factors. Hardness is not one that warrants attention. On what basis have you concluded that the tank suffers Mg or Fe shortage? It's better to list the symptoms rather than to conclude a cause. Cheers,
  12. ceg4048

    Aquatic plants are plants with C4 or C3 photosynthesis?

    There is another category similar to C4, called CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism). CAM plants uptake CO2 at night and stores it as malic acid. Then extracts and uses the CO2 during the day. CAM plants are typically in arid terrestrial environments, but there are an aquatic versions in the genus...
  13. ceg4048

    Do you stabilize/buffer your RO water?

    I agree with Darrel and Wookii. There is no need to chase pH stability as neither plants nor fish really care. As stated, remineralize and let the pH do what it will. Cheers,
  14. ceg4048

    What to test for?

    Hello, This is definitely a CO2 related algae. Having a CO2 injected tank does not make the tank immune to CO2 shortfall. In fact, MOST problems that occur in a CO2 injected tank are actually CO2 related. There are many ways to cock up CO2, including excessive lighting, as already...
  15. ceg4048

    Understanding CO2 / pH / KH

    This is incorrect. You absolutely cannot determine the CO2 content of either the tap water or of the tank water by simply by using the pH/KH/CO2 table. If you do this you will consistently overestimate your CO2. You need to ignore the table and ignore the LFS advice until you have a much better...
  16. ceg4048

    What’s everyone’s thoughts on aquarium testing kits (Newbie)

    Hello, There are no test kits that are in any way "ideal" for a planted aquarium. The problem with test kits are not merely because they are inaccurate and inconsistent, but that test kits and testing for parameters that very few understand is part of a wider conspiracy by vendors to...
  17. ceg4048

    TDS always increasing

    Hello Tom, Yes, many hobbyists are under this impression and this originates from a basic misunderstanding of how CO2 behaves in water. When CO2 dissolves in water a small percentage of the gas reacts with the water to form carbonic acid. The percentage is very, very small. This...
  18. ceg4048

    TDS always increasing

    Hello, TDS has nothing to do with the ability of CO2 to dissolve in water. There are three parameters and ONLY three parameters that have an effect on gas solubility. These parameters are: a) pressure b) temperature c) salinity No. Cheers,
  19. ceg4048

    PH/KH/GH/Co2 problems

    Hello, The necessity of pH stability is another of those old wives tales. Neither plants nor fish care about pH stability and in CO2 injected tanks the pH varies wildly over the course of the day. As mentioned by other posters, the need to increase GH is driven only by the nutritional...
  20. ceg4048

    RO unit worth it?

    I agree with Tim. How does anyone know what a fish died of? Are autopsies performed to determine cause of death? Can anyone pin the cause directly to Calcium/Magnesium concentration in the water? Also, what is the mechanism of the damage done? People assess blame based on their favorite...
  21. ceg4048

    RO unit worth it?

    I agree with Tim. It is absolutely pointless to worry about "right" GH/KH as this has nothing to do with plant health and has no effect on ability to inject CO2. These plants were grown in typical hard water in excess of GH 26. What plants and fish care about is clean water. Cheers,
  22. ceg4048

    Issue with Kh/K

    This is false. Hard water has nothing to do with blockage of K+ assimilation. I advise to stop worrying about K or KH and concentrate more on keeping your tank clean with regular water changes, dosing your nutrients regularly and to pay close attention to your CO2. Your plants really do not care...
  23. ceg4048

    Potassium test?

    Yeah, exactly. Here is a tank dosed weekly at approximately 150ppm K+ (intentionally), with KH greater than 20 (intentionally) and GH greater than 26 (intentionally). Worrying about Potassium toxicity is a complete waste of energy. Never worry about NO3/PO4/K, KH/GH, or trace toxicity. Always...
  24. ceg4048

    TDS / GH / KH query

    Yes. Save your money to buy nicer fish or nicer plants. Re-mineralize as stated above and carry on. Neither fish nor plants will care. Cheers,
  25. ceg4048

    GH and KH question.

    Best inclination I've seen all week. Cheers,
  26. ceg4048

    Household water softener water usability

    Hello, The resin in your softener can also use Potassium Chloride salt tablets, but is not as efficient and unfortunately, KCL cost around 5X as much as NaCl. Problematic, but still better for the environment and the fish/plants. Cheers,
  27. ceg4048

    Perplexed about extreme TDS readings

    Hello, This is yet one more myth that hobbyist should never worry about. pH is just a number and has no meaning by itself and is only relevant within the context of the chemical agents in the water. So the number itself cannot be dangerous unless the number is being driven by a dangerous...
  28. ceg4048

    Perplexed about extreme TDS readings

    Hello, Assuming your probe reads accurately, the next suspect could be your acid buffer (which you really don't need). Acid buffers used to be made from highly toxic phosphoric acid, but the marketing on that product seem to imply that it is not H3PO4. It claims to convert Carbonate...
  29. ceg4048

    Ammonia test kit and Urea

    Well, in my opinion, your being a qualified scientist is a disadvantage, primarily because it seemingly imposes a degree of confirmation bias to your ideas. At least you do recognize that experience is a valid alternative, so that's encouraging. Have a look at this article in venerable Krib...
  30. ceg4048

    Ammonia test kit and Urea

    It's exactly as Darrel mentions. all the nitrogenous compounds that interest us (NH3/NO3/NO2) move dynamically between aqueous and gaseous phases, so the readings are not consistent. You say you've not found these kits to be unreliable, but how do you know? Against what standard are you...
  31. ceg4048

    Ammonia test kit and Urea

    Hi Miranda, Substrate changes can be tricky. It might be advisable to do it in smaller sections over time and allow each section to start repopulating with bacteria, then move on to the next section. Your frequent water changes will always help to keep toxicity down. Cheers,
  32. ceg4048

    Ammonia test kit and Urea

    Hello Miranda, Not a stupid question, but very difficult to predict. There is a hefty supply of an enzyme in the sediment called Urease which breaks down urea to form ammonia (NH3) and CO2. If you have healthy plants in the tank they will remove the NH3 from the water...
  33. ceg4048

    Test kit for dummies

    Hello, As mentioned above the best thing to do is to avoid test kits entirely. Test kits hypnotize normal people and turn them into mindless zombies. You would do well to simply perform weekly water changes of 50% or more and just carry on. You will not learn anything from those kits...
  34. ceg4048

    Phosfate (PO4) readings fluctuates

    Hello, Instead of looking for explanations on the behaviour of PO4 you should instead investigate the behaviour of PO4 test kits, which are completely unreliable. My advice is to dose your nutrients according to some pre-determined schedule and stop using test kits to determine nutrient...
  35. ceg4048

    How important is hardness vs. other conditions?

    Hello, Yes, hardness is never really a problem for all but a handful of plants. Lighting and CO2 are the main culprits. Here was a tank with a GH of about 23 GH and 26 KH. Cheers,
  36. ceg4048

    Low ph in a 2yr old set up

    Hello, I agree with alto in post #7. Trying to adjust pH for the sake of pH will only cause more problems than it would solve. The fact that the condition has existed for 2 years and that you fish are breeding in this water is absolute proof that this is a non-issue. The fish that you listed...
  37. ceg4048

    1.5 PH Swing / 0 KH

    Hello, Shrimp do not really care about pH or pH swings. What's killing them is the CO2, which is the most toxic component we use. Reduce your CO2 injection rate or reduce the amount of time the CO2 is being injected. Cheers,
  38. ceg4048

    Question Gh and Kh planted aquarium

    Hi, I think that was for about 3 years, then I had to move house. :( Well, exact amounts would be 3X to 5X the amounts listed in the article for a 600L tank. So the baseline dosages at tank startup were 1.5 teaspoon KNO3 3X per week, 0.5 teaspoon KH2PO4 3X per week and 0.5 teaspoon...
  39. ceg4048

    Question Gh and Kh planted aquarium

    Hi, Yes, sorry, that's wrong. The micronutrient metals are normally "chelated", which means they are chemically bonded to other compounds. Even so, the reason the metals are called "micro" nutrients is because the plant only needs microscopic amounts. You never have to worry about Prime...
  40. ceg4048

    Question Gh and Kh planted aquarium

    Hi JPC, The expression "poor CO2" refers to the lack of, or reduced ability of a plant to uptake sufficient quantities of the gas. Therefore, poor CO2 can occur in the presence of high localized dissolved concentrations of the gas, or it can occur with low concentrations, or in...
  41. ceg4048

    Question Gh and Kh planted aquarium

    Well it's important to try different things, if for no other reason but to learn the answer to the question for yourself. Who knows? maybe some of your fish might breed in the tank. I actually experienced that and so it was worth the trouble, but what I learned was that there were more important...
  42. ceg4048

    Question Gh and Kh planted aquarium

    Hi, Neither fish nor the majority of plants care much about GH/KH. There are a few plants that are possibly affected by high KH but Blyxa is not one of those. Some plants are actually experts at taking advantage of high KH under stressful conditions of low CO2. Collecting and storing RO...
  43. ceg4048

    Sodium and plants

    No, sorry, I have not seen a list. Folks just accept that Sodium is not nice and simply avoid using it. Are you certain that your agent of choice uses Sodium? It would be very unusual. You haven't mentioned the brand but there are many products on the market that don't use Sodium. In any case...
  44. ceg4048

    My tap water question

    Hello, You only need to add any dechlorinator at water change time. This is very easy. Make sure you use a product that neutralizes chloramine if that is shown on your water report or if it is unclear. Normal chlorine will dissipate after 24-48 hours, so many people will store water for...
  45. ceg4048

    Does Mg lower KH?

    The reefer is wrong in his words but is right in his concept. This is yet another example of poor choice of words causing confusion which leads to misconception. Folks on this board bash me for correcting their words (which they consider insulting) but the reason I persevere is specifically to...
  46. ceg4048

    Understanding water parameters

    The pH of water is a function of it's alkalinity. You must be careful when interpreting the term "KH". The term refers to "Carbonate Hardness" which in turn refers to the amount of Carbonate and Bicarbonate only. These are the standard buffers which affect the waters ability to resist pH...
  47. ceg4048

    Seiryu Stone and increasing KH

    I agree with Tim. Much ado about nothing. The OP is encouraged to pay attention to the things that matter such as keeping the tank clean via large weekly water changes, ensuring good flow/distribution as well as efficient CO2 technique (if CO2 is being used). Worrying about minor effects of a...
  48. ceg4048

    pH, CO2, and almond leaves

    You cannot increase CO2 by lowering the pH. The only way to increase CO2 is to open the needle valve and to inject more CO2. That stupid KH/pH/CO2 table has cause more confusion and problems than it has ever solved. Cheers,
  49. ceg4048

    Declorinators in planted tanks

    No issues at all. Cheers,
  50. ceg4048

    Falling PH

    If you are wise, you will ignore pH changes and only use it to measure the effectiveness of your CO2 (if you will use CO2). Do not get wrapped around the axle with pH. Instead, worry about whether you are doing enough water changes and whether you are keeping the tank as clean as possible. Cheers,
  51. ceg4048

    What's the latest consensus on the effect of high KH on plant growth?

    Well I haven't tried all, but I did have a great deal of difficulty with Ludwigia inclinata "Pantanal" as well as with Tonina. I wasn't aware that P. helferi is supposed to not do well in hard water. I don't think I've ever grown it in anything else. A lot of problems that we have with...
  52. ceg4048

    What's the latest consensus on the effect of high KH on plant growth?

    Hi, No, CO2 does not care about high KH. It dissolves in High KH water exactly the same as in low KH water. I did input high levels of CO2, but that was due to high lighting and high plant mass. The same was true when I used RO water, but collecting and storing RO was more trouble than it...
  53. ceg4048

    What's the latest consensus on the effect of high KH on plant growth?

    Hello, High GH is annoying because it causes calcium deposits on your kettle and unsightly water spots on tank glass and equipment. However, the consensus is that there is very little impact on the vast majority of plants. The consensus is based on experience as well as on analysis...
  54. ceg4048

    leaf litter as tank decor

    As I mentioned, pH is a consequence of all these other items that you noted. There are lots of avenues where the pH may rise or fall. What you may interpret as a fish's response to pH will actually be a response to some other component in the water that also has an effect on pH. So for example...
  55. ceg4048

    leaf litter as tank decor

    As stated above, fish really do not care about pH.What they care about is cleanliness and freedom from toxic substances in the water. Some toxins also have an affect on pH, other toxins may have very little effect. By adhering to a policy of frequent water changes you can help to maintain...
  56. ceg4048

    Iron phosphate

    No, I don't think it's a cop out. As I mentioned, it's just another tool. I don't see how anyone could determine numbers for comparison. In any case it's more important to know, for those that use only the liquid, that the liquid is not as effective by itself as gas. No one actually knows how...
  57. ceg4048

    Iron phosphate

    Yes, I have done, but it is very expensive on a large tank. I have used Excel, Easycarbo. If you have very high lighting and you don't want to push the CO2 too high for the sake of the fauna then you can easily supplement with daily liquid carbon. Also, if you suffer a CO2 related algal bloom...
  58. ceg4048

    Iron phosphate

    Yes, you are being pedantic. It will be the death of you. Death by pedantic is the second most common occurrence in The Matrix. The most common, of course, is death by test kit. Dose Epsom Salt whenever it is most convenient. OK, well, that's a good start. I'm never sure why folks feel that...
  59. ceg4048

    Iron phosphate

    Trying to micromanage nutrients is not the best strategy. All the hand wringing about what precipitates is simply wasted energy. So the first thing to consider is that if you have calcium in your tap there is absolutely no need to add more calcium. So now you've just created a new problem for...
  60. ceg4048

    Sudden Ammonia Spike

    Turning off CO2 does nothing to accelerate the use of NH3 by plants and does not detoxify ammonia. In fact, it is just the opposite. The more Carbon a plant uses the more Nitrogen it will consume. The opposite is also true. Carbon and Nitrogen usage is coupled. This is the main reason that when...
  61. ceg4048

    Ca and Mg

    Hello, For all intents and purposes, ratios are irrelevant. Even if you could measure the ratios in the water column - which you really can't - it would mean nothing because what is in the water column and substrate is not related to what is in the plant tissue. Therefore, the only...
  62. ceg4048

    Water testing

    And the comparison reveals zero reliable information. The OP is advised to abandon test kits and simply concentrate on things that actually matter. Cheers,
  63. ceg4048

    So what is organic wastes?

    It appears that the term "Dissolved Solid" is unclear to many. My guess is that folks often assume that if a solid object, like a sugar cube, is dissolved in a cup of tea, then it's no longer a solid. Of course, it can't be seen so it must not be a solid anymore, it must be a liquid. if this is...
  64. ceg4048

    So what is organic wastes?

    Hello, Organic waste, such as food, poop, urine as well as the waste products excreted by plants, is deadly because bacteria continue to feed and break down these components. The bacteria that perform these functions are aerobic, meaning that they are oxygen breathers. In so doing...
  65. ceg4048

    Tap safe or not

    Hi, I just use a length of rubber hose from the nearest faucet and run the tap water straight to the tank and dump in some dechlorinator as Ian mentions. Collecting rain water, or storing/conditioning water with airstones is just too tedious and takes a lot of the fun out of keeping...
  66. ceg4048

    Very low ph, shoud I be concerned?

    One more thing not to waste time worrying about. Cheers,
  67. ceg4048

    Tetra Easy Balance Water Change Conditioner

    As Paulo mentions, check the Tutorial section of the forum. You'll need to fundamentally re-program your perspective on algae. Plants and algae interact in a way that is completely different than what people have been led to believe, and that's why there is so much trouble. Check this thread and...
  68. ceg4048

    Is Adding Liquid Fertaliser a Waste of Time?

    As mentioned by the other posters, foliar uptake by aquatic plants is not only possible but is extremely efficient. The distance that the nutrient ion has to travel from the water to the reaction center is fractions of millimeters, whereas translocation from the root to the leaf can be many...
  69. ceg4048

    Low pH / KH, what about CO2?

    Yes, CO2 is serious business. So take it slowly and always observe your fish. Yes, this is correct. Fish only care WHY the pH is low. They do not care that the number itself is low. See more in the post http://www.ukaps.org/forum/threads/whats-the-importance-of-kh.31225/#post-331273 So when you...
  70. ceg4048

    Low pH / KH, what about CO2?

    Hello, You don't really need to do this. It complicates your life and has zero benefit for plants unless the tap water is high in herbicides. Your symptoms describe a CO2 failure so perhaps look at increasing the injection rate if feasible and more importantly, look at how you are...
  71. ceg4048

    jbl nitratex

    The OP needs to stop using Nitrate test kits. Life will be much easier and sensible. Cheers,
  72. ceg4048

    Dry trace mix and EDDHA iron

    OK, fair enough. Please be advised however that "naturally occurring" NPK is the enemy and that's where all the trouble starts. In a CO2 enriched tank, you really want to avoid, as much as possible, nutrition from food because these are toxic and anoxic sources of nutrition. The idea of EI is...
  73. ceg4048

    Dry trace mix and EDDHA iron

    It's not clear what opinion you are looking for. It might be better if you asked a more specific question. As far as I can tell by the numbers you listed the trace mix looks fine. EDDHA is useful in hard water and high pH situations (pH 8 and above) due to the strong chelate bond with the Fe. I...
  74. ceg4048

    Will plants acclimatise and sustain at a high PH??

    Well, again, peat is used in certain situations in order to reduce the pH of the sediment. That's one of the reasons it became popular. For terrestrial plants this may have some relevance, but for our purposes it's not that important. Check the post...
  75. ceg4048

    Will plants acclimatise and sustain at a high PH??

    As I mentioned, pH is completely irrelevant within this context. Sometimes you need to worry about pH, but that is in very special circumstances. In most cases the pH is measured in order to use the numerical value as a tool. So for example, people who inject CO2 need to understand that the...
  76. ceg4048

    Will plants acclimatise and sustain at a high PH??

    No. This is not only wrong, it's very wrong because it is like using a cart to drive a horse. Adding CO2 to water causes a chemical reaction between a small fraction of the dissolved CO2 (between 1/1000th to 1/600th) and the Hydrogen ions in the water. This reaction creates a small amount of a...
  77. ceg4048

    Will plants acclimatise and sustain at a high PH??

    Thank you. Liquid Carbon raises the pH. Gaseous CO2 lowers the pH. Neither fish nor plants care about pH. They only care WHY the pH is what it is. If the WHY is because of something innocuous then they will not care. If the reason is because of some toxic agent then they will suffer due to the...
  78. ceg4048

    Will plants acclimatise and sustain at a high PH??

    This is confusing. The amount of CO2 in the water depends on how much you are injecting, not just on the pH. Is your pH measumennt device correct? You're not giving the right level of information so it's very easy for people to misunderstand and give you inappropriate advice. What exactly are...
  79. ceg4048

    Will plants acclimatise and sustain at a high PH??

    Plants do not care about pH. You need to abandon this worry and instead, worry about keeping your tank clean, as well as not going overboard with light intensity. Cheers,
  80. ceg4048

    Sodium and plants

    There are no negative effects of high potassium. I routinely dose Potassium at values exceeding 100ppm K+ so it's a pointless waste of time worrying about K+ toxicity. Here is a tank dosed at approximately 130ppm K+ If people want to worry then they always choose to worry about CO2 above...
  81. ceg4048

    Purigen vs activated carbon

    See examples of relative merits in the post http://www.ukaps.org/forum/threads/carpet-plant-and-mid-ground-plants-melting-kindly-advice.34009/#post-362691 Cheers,
  82. ceg4048

    bacterial bloom

    The OP is advised to NOT get fish or other fauna because they will not solve the fundamental problems of this tank. Fish and fauna do add more problems. If there is this much difficulty getting the tank started then there is some fundamental flaw in technique that will not be served by putting...
  83. ceg4048

    50 % Water Changes using Hot and Cold Water?

    Yes. Do this and get on with it mate. Water changes should not have to be rocket science. Cheers,
  84. ceg4048

    When do you add GH booster?

    Yes, that is correct. GH Booster is a means to an end. If you have added those two micros via a different source then you have effectively already boosted your GH in the process, but as you have correctly mentioned, the true relevance lies in the availability of Ca and Mg, not in GH boosting per...
  85. ceg4048

    When do you add GH booster?

    Yes, you can mate. Mg is Mg and Ca is Ca, soif you have these two covered by whatever soluble salts you have access to then you definitely don't need to add any GH Booster. Cheers,
  86. ceg4048

    When do you add GH booster?

    OK, thanks for that mate. Yeah, it shows the water is soft, just about GH 3.5 and KH of about 1. Again, since we do not know what it comprises we can only be sure of the necessity by actually using GH Booster and observing if there is a difference in performance. If no improvement is observed...
  87. ceg4048

    Help with measuring KH using API test kit.

    Assume 5 drops Raffik and just carry on. Do not lose sleep over this. Trying to outsmart your test kits is simply not worth the energy. Cheers,
  88. ceg4048

    When do you add GH booster?

    GH Booster is for those people who like to use RO or demineralized water, or for those who live in an area where their municipal tap water is very soft and is therefore low in Calcium and/or Magnesium. If one uses tap water in a high GH municipal zone then there is normally no need for GH...
  89. ceg4048

    Who to Trust?

    +1 for crap. :thumbup: ...oops my bad... :thumbdown: Cheers,
  90. ceg4048

    pH pens and low KH

    TDS = Total Dissolved Solids = Conductivity (more or less) . Cheers,
  91. ceg4048

    pH pens and low KH

    Check these from Hanna Instruments. The three at the top of the page are excellent but pricey. http://www.amazon.co.uk/s/ref=nb_sb_ss_c_0_8?url=search-alias%3Dpets&field-keywords=hanna%20ph%20meter&sprefix=hanna+ph%2Caps%2C230 Cheers,
  92. ceg4048

    pH pens and low KH

    Please review Iain Sutherland's response in post #27. If the plants are dying then the CO2 concentration is too low. If they are thriving then the CO2 concentration is high, if they are doing fair to middling then the CO2 concentration is fair to middling. The number is irrelevant. We only use...
  93. ceg4048

    Using the pH, KH, CO2 chart

    Nearer to what? Total meltdown? H+ ion concentration levels have an exponential contribution. More importantly, the acids production in the tank varies. Did you know that Newtons gravitational theory and equations are completely wrong? He even knew it and came up with phony fudge factors that...
  94. ceg4048

    Using the pH, KH, CO2 chart

    You still have the problem of tank acids. Now you simply have a different overestimate. Cheers,
  95. ceg4048

    Using the pH, KH, CO2 chart

    Zero. It's not only the pH data that is corrupt, but also the KH. See http://www.ukaps.org/forum/threads/ph-pens-and-low-kh.33920/#post-361828 This relationship of pH KH and CO2 only ever happens in a DC, because the only acid in a DC is carbonic acid and the KH is due 100% to Carbonate. In...
  96. ceg4048

    Local water analysis advice

    Hello, Just carry on and forget about those numbers. There is nothing special to do and there will be only a handful of plants that you would struggle with. Your struggle, like everyone else, including those with soft water, will be with the techniques associated with...
  97. ceg4048

    Accurate method of mesuring nitrates

    Get your wallet out and click the link in this post => http://ukaps.org/forum/threads/ferts-causing-high-nitrate.16092/#post-167069 Cheers,
  98. ceg4048

    pH pens and low KH

    Spectral absorption probes already are available and cost lots of money. Mass spectrometry is one of the techniques used in £1000 equipment. Cheers,
  99. ceg4048

    pH pens and low KH

    No, you are missing a couple of key points. The charts are a very rough guide because they assume that the KH of the water is due to Carbonates - and that's not really true for most tap water. Your KH test kit does NOT measure KH, it measure alkalinity which is affected by a lot more ions than...