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  1. ian_m

    Is an air stone necessary ?

    I found that running an air-stone, quickly degasses CO2 at the end of CO2/lighting period and more interesting results in a cleaner tank due to producing different water flows that lifts any settled detritus into the tank to be filtered away. I turn my air on for 3 hours at starting 15minutes...
  2. ian_m

    Watercooling pump as pump ?

    Just have to be careful as some pumps are designed to "push" water far far better than they can pull. In fish world it is better to "pull" after the filter so you are pumping cleaner water.
  3. ian_m

    Does anyone have an indoor carnivorous plant garden?

    Worth a visit on their open days, it you are in this area of the country. They have regular open days. I went round with hands in pockets, so I didn't touch/prod anything I shouldn't and to stop my wallet escaping and emptying...:D Carnivorous Plants | Venus Fly Traps - Hantsflytrap
  4. ian_m

    incase a hose pops off and floods your house.....

    I have stainless jubillee clips on my diffuser rather than the lock nuts, as I had a "pop off" incident whilst fiddling adjusting hoses once.
  5. ian_m

    Water Trickling Back into CO2 Lines

    The problem with the one in your picture is they are meant for air and are not CO2 proof. I have had the rubber valve inside just crack and fall apart, as well as in some the rubber just melt and melt closed, as well as the plastic case leak due to high pressure of CO2. Been using the metal ones...
  6. ian_m

    Garden lights shorting out - Ants

    Outdoor lights & power should always be run from a separate mini consumer unit, so if there is an issue it wont affect the rest of the power to the house. Something like with can take a 6A RCBO (combined over current trip and RCD) for the lights and 16A RCBO for any power sockets. Also...
  7. ian_m

    Garden lights shorting out - Ants

    This is what I had to fit to my garage door. Sorry for crap pic. We kept getting flooding of our garage once every couple of years. Previous years due to collapsed/blocked Southern Water storm drains, but last year Southern Water admitted it was due to "hydraulic overload" ie drains couldn't...
  8. ian_m

    Garden lights shorting out - Ants

    This fails electrical safety in so many ways... Use of chocolate block connectors outdoors without water protection. No sealing grommets. Non weather tight box. Use of insulation tape. Use of indoor rated 2.5mm (?) cable outdoors. Not using armoured cable. Thank goodness for RCDs. I did my...
  9. ian_m

    Olympus is Calling.

    Uneven floor and big tank. Hmmm.
  10. ian_m

    Lighting suggestions for Juwel Vision 180

    I very much doubt you will find any other lights that fit this tank, the light unit looks very specific for this type of tank. May be able to bodge/DIY something with LED strips or LED spots, certainly not fluorescent tubes (or equivalent LEDs') as even the smallest tube is too big for this...
  11. ian_m

    Cheap reliable auto doser?

    Or make your own dosing pump system like I did. DIY Project - DIY dual peristaltic dosing pump with alternate switching. Originally I used two timers, one for each pump. Then updated with alternate switching circuit so only one timer could be used. Finally updated to be controlled via my PLC...
  12. ian_m

    Reuse the disposable nano co2 cylinders?

    You don't have to store your CO2 bottle/fire extinguisher near your tank of course. Some people have stored the cylinders in their garage and run 4mm CO2 tubing under the floor/along the skirting board to their tanks, with no issues. Just have to think very carefully when doing it, as if you...
  13. ian_m

    Holiday care for planted Tanks

    15ml White HDPE Travel Bottle & Screw Cap - Ampulla - 0161 367 1414 I bought loads of these to use to store food an ferts in. Still using them, as you can put shampoo, mouthwash and other liquids in when you fly away for short breaks. Flying abroad...any one remember that....
  14. ian_m

    Holiday care for planted Tanks

    In 2012 I would have been away for about 5 weeks, 3 weeks away + week either side. My first pass was to place fish food and measured fertiliser doses in little bottles, labelled for each day away and neighbour drop in and empty one food and one fertiliser bottle per day. Would have left CO2...
  15. ian_m

    Is there any difference between the color of the lights for planted tank?

    Commercial hydroponic/greenhouse growers use lights at the pink/red end of the spectrum: This produces the most grams plant mass per Watt input power. Not wasting energy in producing higher energy blue light that makes little difference to plant growth. Not wasting energy in producing any green...
  16. ian_m

    what water to use with Ei Starter Kit

    No. To reduce the hardness, as if water is extremely hard you can suffer precipitates of calcium phosphate. "nasties" will not be able to live in the macro solution, and the micro solution contains preservative.
  17. ian_m

    what water to use with Ei Starter Kit

    Boiled & cooled tap water is the usual and most convenient, unless you have easy access to RO water. Fantastic, plants will love it, so use this boiled and cooled.
  18. ian_m

    Potassium Nitrate (KNO3) Purchased from Internet

    Here is the link to UK government website where it shows potassium nitrate is a "reportable substance". Supplying explosives precursors and poisons Interesting it is available from some internet auction tat site, sold for meat preserving, but sold as saltpetre. Also, so is aluminum powder, for...
  19. ian_m

    Potassium Nitrate (KNO3) Purchased from Internet

    A naughty way to determine if it is potassium nitrate is to verify it oxidising properties. Make a small amount of concentrated of potassium nitrate solution, drip this solution on to some filter paper (eg coffee filter paper, works well) and dry in the sun outside. Once dry apply a lit match...
  20. ian_m

    Strong light in Juwel but still have the hood

    There is always lights like these, if you wish to vaporise your plants. Only marginally less efficient than LED's, but considerably cheaper. I have had my 4 tube version since 2016, works fine, induces algae really quickly if you are not paying attention. 4 Tube 120cm T5 Light – Juwel High Lite...
  21. ian_m

    building a 1200L nature aquarium with Wild Discus & jungle-nature feel

    You have to be very careful using multiple timers and pumps. Why are aren't you pumping waste water straight out to drain ? Things to plan for are: A lot of pumps are not happy if run dry. Some require water to be cooled and function properly. You need to prevent pumps running dry. I used to...
  22. ian_m

    building a 1200L nature aquarium with Wild Discus & jungle-nature feel

    A diagram would be nice ? Baffles and weirs in sumps are a must to compartmentalize the water, so basically it is not possible for the whole sump volume to end up in the tank or on the floor !!!. Continuous water change systems I have seen tend to be "passive", in that water is added and...
  23. ian_m

    building a 1200L nature aquarium with Wild Discus & jungle-nature feel

    Not sure it is that simple to auto change water using a sump due to the large changes in water levels encountered between when running and when "failed". I have seen systems that used an extra section in their tank weir overflow to allow water to overflow into their drain. You have this drain...
  24. ian_m

    building a 1200L nature aquarium with Wild Discus & jungle-nature feel

    I can see a couple of failure issues in your design. If sump pump fails/turns off/power cut, water drains from the pipework, raises in sump and drains to out of your overflow, thus you are losing "working water". One way check valves never ever ever ever ever work reliably. You get a...
  25. ian_m

    Eheim filter flow ratings?

    Most reputable filter manufacturers show some form of "actual rate", but some do stretch it a bit, like FX5 below. Why on earth would you be interested in "filter circulation" with no filtration media ????
  26. ian_m

    Eheim filter flow ratings?

    JBL actually specify their cannister filter rates WITH practical usable lengths of hose and filter filled with their media. Also state that the pump rate, as "on the box", is in fact for the pump running with no hoses of media.
  27. ian_m

    Softened Water

    Remember changing the water is only a small part of regular weekly (?) maintenance. Much much more important is removal of dead plant matter (and fish :() and all the detritus that collects on the substrate. No amount of automatic water changing is going to replace a good substrate vacuum and...
  28. ian_m

    Softened Water

    Unfortunately sodium softened water has no place in fish keeping as there is no biological process "consuming" the sodium, thus will accumulate in your tank, much as sodium does in the sea. Solutions are: Use considerably more expensive potassium chloride in your softener. Fit a un-softened...
  29. ian_m

    First water test

    If you have used Prime in the water, then that will certainly negate most of the test kit results as it interfere with the results. Depending on test kit method causes zero results or massive over read. I think Prime can cause zero ammonia readings and overreading on nitrate with liquid reagent...
  30. ian_m

    RO Water Nano Tank Mix Quantities

    High nitrate does no produce algae. You need to look else where. Many of us dose Estimative Index with what many assume is "high nitrate" and we don't suffer algae.
  31. ian_m

    Dechlorinator with RO water

    Yes you should always add something like Prime to your RO water...or test for free ammonia and free chlorine before. These test kits will normally be quite accurate as there will be little other interfering ions, to mess up the results. The reason for these two is due to the "failure modes" of...
  32. ian_m

    How to check for deadspots with no co2

    I tied my drop checker, with a short length of string to a stone, so it could be moved around the middle of the tank, rather then be just stuck to the glass. Using my 1500l/hr filter + internal 600l/hr filter in a 180l tank I found spots where the drop checker was still blue(ish) when lights...
  33. ian_m

    Household water softener water usability

    So where do you get your drinking/cooking water from ? In UK there must be an unsoftened water supply (by law), normally in kitchen, for drinking/cooking, as salt softened water is generally not recommended for human consumption. Cold taps in kitchen and all bathrooms are unsoftened water in my...
  34. ian_m

    Household water softener water usability

    Nope. Just do what most people do try and work with the water coming out of your tap. If doing continuous changes, use tap water with a pre-filter and Dechlor (or equivalent) de-chlorination cartridge. A lot of discus keepers just use tap water with a HMA filter. Nope as well. Switching to...
  35. ian_m

    Household water softener water usability

    Yes softened water with sodium chloride softening has no place in fish keeping (as stated by the long since dead site SkepticalAquarist) due to the presence of sodium ions in the softened water. Some people use the considerably more expensive potassium chloride to recharge their water...
  36. ian_m

    hi I'm dave

    Keep it simple and keep the filter separate. Joining together filter input and filter output hoses is a big no-no. If one filter is more powerful (or less blocked) than the other then it can push water the wrong way through the weaker filter. Couple of people have had a "wipe out" where the...
  37. ian_m

    Moving from AIO to EI - Final check before ordering

    It is to reduce the hardness of tap water used for mixing EI macro. If you have soft tap water no need to bother, but quite a lot of people have had "issues" using straight out the tap hard water with EI macro and the phosphate precipitating out as possibly calcium and/or magnesium phosphate. No...
  38. ian_m

    Moving from AIO to EI - Final check before ordering

    Why so frequent water changes ? Most people 50% once a week is absolutely fine. If keeping frequent water changes you will possibly need to increase your dose amounts to the 50% you will be throwing away in the 50% water change... :confused:
  39. ian_m

    Moving from AIO to EI - Final check before ordering

    1. Ignore your water report, almost everyone that deviates from EI dosing as thought they were "saving chemicals" by using their water report values, end up with issues. Usually magnesium deficiency. Just dose EI, any excess due to being present in your water doesn't matter. 2. Not sure why you...
  40. ian_m

    Water storage in shed causing mould issues

    Years and years ago (late 80's) my mate used to kept all the filtration and water processing for his marine tank in a shed against his house. This is when marine tanks, at home, were quite "new thing". Used central heating pumps with plastic attachments to circulate water. Yes the shed was...
  41. ian_m

    Dumb question time DC...

    CO2 Measurement Using A Drop Checker
  42. ian_m

    building a 1200L nature aquarium with Wild Discus & jungle-nature feel

    Drain in sump, whilst good on paper has major "failure issues". If you have a power cut, water from tank, water from the down pipe and water from up tube, drain back into the sump and excess water drains out the overflow. All nice and safe. When power comes back, you have now lost a significant...
  43. ian_m

    Seeding a new filter

    When I got a replacement 2nd filter, I just connected it up to the tank, no transferring of media. Next water change a week later the filter was rather dirty which was a shock/surprise....
  44. ian_m

    Nitrate Starvation, Red Colouration promotion

    You need to tell my plants that low nitrogen makes them red. This is with 2x EI dosing levels, due to large plant mass, and they seem to have no problem with deep reds. Maybe excess nitrogen makes plants red ?
  45. ian_m

    Twin output Co2

    Yes that is the way to do it. See my picture above. Just make sure you get a decent higher quality, possibly dual stage regulator, that will support greater CO2 flow compare to single tank requirements.
  46. ian_m

    Call me old fashioned... pH controller

    This issue with pH controllers is they measure absolute pH value not pH change from no CO2 injection ph to a +1pH change when CO2 level reached. This is why people end up ruining their tanks with pH controllers as the base line none CO2 injected pH level can vary from day to day due carbonate...
  47. ian_m

    New tank Co2 checker

    Here's what a bit of heavy breathing does to your drop checker... How to check your drop checker....
  48. ian_m

    Twin output Co2

    This is how you get two CO2 injection points from a single regulator. Like in the picture from aquascape1987 above.
  49. ian_m

    Water change temperature

    This is what I use. Makes plant fiddling, bit of cleaning, emptying water onto front lawn and refilling tank about an hour to do. Water change heater project. I and many other people have often run cold tap water straight into the tank, remembering to dose dechlorinator into tank first, yes...
  50. ian_m

    Moving tank to lay new flooring, help!

    I moved the tank on it's stand, so glass was fully supported.
  51. ian_m

    How to use a PLC to control your fish tank.

    Not touched my PLC for years. It just works 100%. Did disable liquid carbon dosing when I ran out during lockdown. Need to update sometime... Running hours overflows back to 0 after 32,000 hours run time. There is a spelling mistake on one screen. Disable dosing if lights are on, which...
  52. ian_m

    Moving tank to lay new flooring, help!

    Yes I had hardwood flooring fitted underneath my tank many years ago. - I drained tank as low as fish'ily possible into large 40l (from Asda) buckets. - Two of us moved tank to other side of room. Cut all carpet around tank to leave tank on a pad of old carpet. Refilled with the water. Floor...
  53. ian_m

    building a 1200L nature aquarium with Wild Discus & jungle-nature feel

    You will have couple of issues immediately straight off with this type of setup. 1. Most liquid solenoid valves are quite small bore, meant for letting reasonable pressure water ie mains @ above say 2 bar, through. Certainly not 16mm diameter, if using 16/22mm piping. 2. Large bore valves are...
  54. ian_m

    Tropic Co2 nano system

    Looks like it might be a regulator then. Many people report issues when trying to use a solenoid with these small systems though.
  55. ian_m

    Tropic Co2 nano system

    You can't connect a solenoid to a Tropica Co2 nano system as the regulator on the cylinder is not in fact a regulator. It is technically a flow rate control valve, either a tiny hole or a metal sponge that just limits the gas flow from the cylinder. If you connect a solenoid to the output, as...
  56. ian_m

    Unopened old bottle of trace elements

    Solufeed Sodium Free TEC™ The technical data sheet matches the TNC trace 100%, looks like there is a typo on the web page for iron %. It cost £13 per Kg, which would last years in a tank.
  57. ian_m

    Deep scratch in base, is it safe?

    Just silicone a square (or disk) of glass on it, if worried. My mate cracked the base of his tank, in one corner, due to putting it on a "collapsing" drawer unit. He siliconed a square of glass over cracked area, buried it in sand, would never know it was there. He had the tank for over 20 years...
  58. ian_m

    Test kit for dummies

    Please read. What about test kits. Generally I find the best value test kits I have found, are the ones left in the fish shop. They don't cost me anything and have never caused me to change water, add fertiliser or other chemicals or keep fish anyway different than I do now.
  59. ian_m

    Using drained water of EI method fertilized planted tank for vegetables irrigation

    I empty 90litres odd onto my front lawn each water change. The grass is definitely a lot greener where the waste water hose reaches and grows taller than the rest of the grass. Being doing this for years, front lawn is still there, just need a longer hose so I can reach the rest of the...
  60. ian_m

    JBL Filter Leaking

    Media baskets stacked correctly. Media baskets not stacked correctly. Guess which one will leak if you force it closed....😷
  61. ian_m

    JBL Filter Leaking

    I have also had leaks where I trapped a plant stem/plant bits in the filter seal and it leaked slowly. Yes and no. When you take the detachable pipes off, the water left "behind the valves" drops out and, yes does get into the pump head, but generally is not much. If you are detaching the...
  62. ian_m

    JBL Filter Leaking

    You haven't stacked the internal media baskets properly. When the media baskets are stacked correctly the pump head rests with about 1-2mm gap all round, closing to 0mm when clips are closed. If you stack the baskets incorrectly there will be greater than 1-2mm gap on one end, but using the...
  63. ian_m

    DIY Optiwhite tank build

    You must trim any silicone as thin as possible, using a sharp knife first. I then wipe with IPA/meths for ensure 100% dry. Then apply remover and go for a couple of cups of tea. When you come back just use a non metal scraper, nylon pot scrubber etc to remove the now loose silicone "film"...
  64. ian_m

    DIY Optiwhite tank build

    I use this to remove sealant. Works wonderfully well. It breaks the bond between the sealant and anything it is attached to. I always use this before doing any siliconing. No Nonsense Sealant Remover 100ml
  65. ian_m

    DIY Optiwhite tank build

    No Nonsense Smoothing Tools Concave Joints Use these to get perfect silicone joints.
  66. ian_m

    PH rise in water cup

    How are you measuring pH ? If using a pH probe, you may be suffering electrical interference in the tank and none in a cup leading to different pH probe readings ?
  67. ian_m

    How to handle chlorine in my DIY auto water change?

    As pointed out you can get "DeChlor" water filter cartridges that specifically will remove chlorine and chloramine. I think the trade name is "ChlorPlus". Used in conjunction with a pre-filter. Biggest issue with these is they fail to work if flow rate is too high and must be replaced promptly...
  68. ian_m

    Tribute to Frederick Thompson

    What I liked about his posting, was he posted his failures as well as his successes. He was not being afraid to admit the failure had cost money, then how he fixed the issue and in the end the solution that worked.
  69. ian_m

    Inline dosing ?

    This would be no good, as the pressure from the water in the reactor would back feed along the dosing tubes and fill & overflow your fertiliser tanks. People have tried this, putting in one way valves, but found the valves slowly leak water slowly filling up the fertiliser tank. Also suffered...
  70. ian_m

    Juwel eccoflow 600

    The latest datasheet for the Rio 240 says it comes with EccoFlow 600. I fitted a 1000l/hr Juwel pump to my Vision 180 and whilst it did give greater flow, tended to end up completely compressing & blocking the filter material, leading to the impellor shaft wearing away and a lot of noise...
  71. ian_m

    Water change processes

    I use this to speed up water changes... Water change heater project.
  72. ian_m

    Two complete CO2 System vs One with multi output regulator

    I ran with my CO2 fire extinguisher on its side, in a magazine rack for months, no problem. Theoretically we should really run fire extinguishers upside down, or take them apart and remove the "dip tube" so that we are only taking output from the gas rather than the liquid. In the end we are...
  73. ian_m

    Co2 and tanks with sumps

    I get through a 2KG FE in about 100 days for my 180l tank with a green approaching yellow drop checker. So that's 20gr per day, 0.11gr per litre per day. So for 500l you are looking at 55gr CO2 per day (I have mine on 8 hours). So weigh your CO2 bottle before CO2 on and when it is off and see...
  74. ian_m

    Two complete CO2 System vs One with multi output regulator

    You do a dual CO2 injection system like this. You have to have two needle valves so you can balance the CO2 flow between the two diffusers. Many people have implemented this type setup with no issues.
  75. ian_m


    Here is a good start for the salts and amounts needed. Ei Starter 1 Kit with Bottles - Starter Kits - Dry Chemicals - Fertilisers
  76. ian_m

    What other hobby's do you have?

    It's a chest of drawers....
  77. ian_m

    DIY Macro Solution Problems

    Holes in leaves can also be caused by potassium shortage. Wonder if due to dosing di-potassium and tri-potassium phosphate the potassium falls out of solution and become not available for plant use ?
  78. ian_m

    DIY Macro Solution Problems

    Potassium phosphate crystal... You could always use the phosphate to grow a crystal...
  79. ian_m

    What other hobby's do you have?

    And here is someone taking table & epoxy resin to the next extreme....
  80. ian_m

    DIY Macro Solution Problems

    Right'o stretching my memory way back when investigating EI dosing years ago (2011 ?), why us fish peeps don't use tri-potassium and di-potassium phosphate, but stick to mono-potassium phosphate. Basically the tri & di potassium phosphate have an issue to do with polymerisation under certain...
  81. ian_m

    Help with CO2 Canister

    I get about 100 days from 2Kg fire extinguisher in 180litres. You have 6 times my tank volume that, so that's 100/6 -> 16 days. Welding cylinders are 600gr odd, so a third my 2Kg, so down to 16/3 -> 5 days. My CO2 injection has taken ages to get to that level (:cool:) of injection & flow...
  82. ian_m

    Is a silicone with fungicide ok to use under tank lid but out of water?

    Silicone is not actually a glue. Almost guaranteed to not stick, eventually, especially on most plastics. If I was adding an extra light, I would bolt it into place, either plastic, but UV resistant, bolts or stainless steel. Then seal with silicone to stop water getting in places it is not wanted.
  83. ian_m

    Advice required

    I would bother with LED for a tank this size, it will cost a fortune and require extensive modifications to the existing hood. These LED lights are brighter than T5 and fit in T5 tube holders. Aqualantis LED But you will have to modify your hood ie open the sealed Juwel lighting unit to wire...
  84. ian_m

    Remote Filtration

    With a new tank with an overflow this is the way to go with remote filtration, as it is automatically balances. Pump runs slow, overflow overflows slow... pumps runs fast overflow overflows fast, all self balancing. Upon pump failure water flows into sump until tank level drops and the tank...
  85. ian_m

    Remote Filtration

    Nice idea, but numerous issues to be considered/worked around. Balancing the system will be hard if not impossible with two pumps, you are almost guaranteed to end up with the pumps "hunting" (stop starting), a very common scenario with multiple pumps and control switches. Pumps are not happy...
  86. ian_m

    Remote Filtration

    Not really fail safe. Normal fail safe in sumps is passive, there is extra volume in both the sump and tank to take "extra" water. The water to the sump MUST come from an overflow, no pumping allowed. If the pump fails, water flows from tank and fills the sump, taking up the extra volume you...
  87. ian_m

    Remote Filtration

    The "marine big boys" do remote filtration all the time. Generally will be some form of overflow to a sump, then pumped remotely to filtration and then back into the tank. Much better as pump is pushing, so no chance of cavitation and you can get a pump that will work pumping along long lengths...
  88. ian_m

    Remote Filtration

    Unfortunately the above system will not work (other than the impossibility of cleaning the pipes and maybe even getting air out the pipes). The FX series manuals states: People have exceed this and if inlet is too long the pump will cavitate and if outlet is too long you will serious reduce...
  89. ian_m

    DIY Inline Heater - Trapped Air

    Yes the water flowing past will draw water/air along the 4mm loop tube. A bit of experimentation may be required.
  90. ian_m

    DIY Inline Heater - Trapped Air

    The other thing you could try, that I have seen before is a venturi air removal pipe. Connect a length of 4mm tubing as in my picture below. It relies on the "venturi" effect at the bottom connection to pull water/air through the tubing, pulling any collected air from the top of the heater...
  91. ian_m

    Anyone use this type of O-ring?

    Shouldn't use rubber with CO2 as CO2 "dissolves" in rubber. Depending on type of rubber either melts/softens/runs or hardens up and cracks. Should use PTFE/nylon for o-rings/washers around CO2.
  92. ian_m

    Is there a negative

    Yes connecting pipes is a big no no, as you say. There is a fatal failure mode. If the combined outlet gets blocked or flow severely reduced or even one filter is off there is a chance that the more powerful (or running) filter will overcome the other one, forcing water and all the filter...
  93. ian_m

    DIY Inline Heater - Trapped Air

    Assuming your pump is "pulling" water through the filter, sounds like your pump is too powerful for your system and/or your filtration is causing too much flow reduction. The pull of your pump and associated "reduced flow" through the filter media is causing reduced water pressure and air to...
  94. ian_m

    The levers of a balanced low energy tank

    My mate had real algae issues in his low tech tank, after changing from T8 tube to T5 tube. In the end he fixed it by putting foil rings on the single T5 tube to reduce the light intensity by 1/2, whilst leaving the light on approx 6 hours. With frequent remaining algae removal, over period of a...
  95. ian_m

    Expired fire extinguishers?

    A US only "scare" site, and it talking about other types of extinguisher leaking, not just CO2. Generally you can't use rubber seals of any type with CO2 as CO2 dissolves into the seal either hardening it or melting it, so seals are typically metal to metal. Teflon is allowed, which is what the...
  96. ian_m

    Expired fire extinguishers?

    The reason they expire is nothing to do with seals, in fact generally there are no rubber seals at all exposed to CO2 in fire extinguishers it is either metal to metal valve or sometimes Teflon to metal. It is to do with pressure testing. Most pressure tanks will have a repeat pressure test date...
  97. ian_m


    Dual gauge regulators have two pressure gauges, one is cylinder pressure and other output pressure. The cylinder pressure, for CO2, will always typically read 800psi/55bar as long as there is liquid CO2 in the cylinder. The output pressure gauge typically will read to 5 bar (70psi), typically...
  98. ian_m

    Drilling APS Opti White Fish Tank

    Very very very unlikely the glass will be tempered. Normally glass is tempered for things where breakage would be dangerous eg door glazing, glass shelving, coffee table tops etc. Never heard of tempered glass being used in a fish tank. Anyway you will soon find out if it is tempered...
  99. ian_m


    No pub gas is DIN477 the UK/European standard. Anything imported from US of A will be CGA320. The UK FE is really the world standard, only US and Japan are different. This site was really informative on CO2. No longer exists but is available on Wayback machine...