With almost limitless-intensity LEDs becoming commonplace in the market. We must answer a fundamental question over the role of pulse width modulation (PWM) in mitigating photoinhibition in plants. In theory, LEDs shine at the same intensity, but this intensity is split into longer "off" and shorter "on" periods. PPFD has always been used to work out continual flux density from stable radiation sources of light like the sun or CFLs, whereas all LEDs follow a continuous pattern that is split between two modes, off and on. The human eye cannot detect these changes, but does it affect plant photoinhibition?