Invasive plants on the Schedule 9 list

Discussion in 'Plant Help' started by Ed Seeley, 3 Jun 2008.

  1. Ed Seeley

    Ed Seeley Member

    Messages:
    3,262
    Location:
    Nottingham
    ALIEN INVASIVE SPECIES WHICH THREATEN THE UK’S FLORA

    This thread is taken from Plantlife web pages (Original Web Page) and it lists the 20 most damaging aquatic and terrestrial invasive aliens, describes the problems they cause, gives an indication of their spread in Britain based on New Atlas data (Preston et al., 2002) and proposes a range of control options. The control options include:
    • Create zones free of certain alien invasive species
    • Containment or eradication on selected sites of nature conservation importance
    • Early detection and eradication
    • Remove plant from sale
    • Improved labelling and guidance for gardeners
    • Place on Schedule 9 Part II

    These are the Aquatic Plants that are covered by this;

    1. Azolla filiculoides Water fern
    Origin North and South America
    Description of the problem This floating fern is able to survive the harsh British winters and can invade a region very rapidly excluding all competitors.
    Atlas Change index +2.76
    Cultivation date Not known
    First date in wild in GB 1886
    10km2 occurences in GB 577
    Action proposed Eradication on selected sites of nature conservation importance
    Create Azolla free zones, eg. Scotland
    Remove plant from sale
    Place on Schedule 9 Part II

    2. Cabomba caroliniana Fanwort
    Origin Eastern North and southern South America
    Description of the problem Cabomba is widely sold as an aquarium plant, mainly from nursery stock in Holland. It was found in Forth and Clyde Canal in 1969 but is no longer present; then in the Basingstoke canal 1991-95. It reproduces by rooting of stem fragments.
    Atlas Change index N/A
    Cultivation date Not known
    First date in wild in GB 1969
    10km2 occurences in GB 0
    Action proposed Early detection and eradication
    Remove plant from sale

    4. Crassula helmsii Australian swamp stonecrop
    Origin Australasia
    Description of the problem This extremely invasive aquatic plant has spread at alarming pace across Britain since its establishment in 1956. It forms dense carpets and excludes all competitors. It is threatening the survival of starfruit Damasonium alisma, one of Britain’s rarest plant. The advance of this weed, which was introduced from Australasia in 1911, has been carefully monitored. It has spread at alarming pace across the country and control measures have to date proved unsuccessful. Even so, the cost of adequate control is estimated to be about £3,000,000 (Leach and Dawson, 1999). An extra complication is the fact that this plant is sold under a range of different names. Some aquatic nurseries have confused the issue by referring to it as Tillaea recurva, or Tillaea helmsii. It also has a variety of English names including New Zealand swamp stonecrop.
    Atlas Change index N/A
    Cultivation date 1927
    First date in wild in GB 1956
    10km2 occurences in GB 574
    Action proposed Eradication on selected sites of nature conservation importance
    Create Crassula free zones, eg. Scotland
    Remove plant from sale
    Place on Schedule 9 Part II

    5. Eichhornia crassipes Water hyacinth
    Origin South America
    Description of the problem Has damaged aquatic habitats wherever it has been introduced. Not yet established in the wild in Britain, but cold water varieties known and being developed in Holland.
    Atlas Change index N/A
    Cultivation date Not known
    First date in wild in GB -
    10km2 occurences in GB 0
    Action proposed Early detection and eradication
    Remove plant from sale

    6. Hydrocotyle ranunculoides Floating pennywort
    Origin North America
    Description of the problem The plant forms dense, interwoven mats of floating vegetation which grow across the surface, altering the ecology of the water body. Initial studies of the British population show that this invasion probably resulted from a single population made available through aquatic garden centres and nurseries where it was often sold under the misnomer “marsh pennywort”, the common name of H. vulgaris, a native British species (Newman and Dawson, 2000). The species is causing a “multitude of problems including deoxygenation of the underlying water, killing fish and invertebrates, drowning cattle and choking drainage systems and sluices, causing extensive localised flooding…crowding out our native plants such as Frogbit, Duckweed and Water Crowfoot” (English Nature, 1999). The current estimate for control of the total infested area by herbicides is between £250,000 and £300,000 per year.
    Atlas Change index N/A
    Cultivation date Not known
    First date in wild in GB 1990
    10km2 occurences in GB 43
    Action proposed Early detection and eradication
    Remove plant from sale
    Place on Schedule 9 Part II

    7. Lagarosiphon major Curly waterweed
    Origin Southern Africa
    Description of the problem Forms dense masses in standing waters. Mainly in southern half of Britain. Can be a pest even in its native range. Sold in garden centres. Banned from New Zealand and Australia.
    Atlas Change index N/A
    Cultivation date Not known
    First date in wild in GB 1944
    10km2 occurences in GB 385
    Action proposed Eradication on selected sites of nature conservation importance
    Create Lagarosiphon free zones, eg. Scotland
    Remove plant from sale
    Place on Schedule 9 Part II

    8. Myriophyllum aquaticum Parrot’s-feather
    Origin South America
    Description of the problem It is mostly found in shallow ponds although has been recorded in a range of water bodies, including flowing systems. It has colonised only about 100 sites in the south of England and its distribution is not yet as widespread as Crassula helmsii. Parrot’s feather does not normally produce the numerous small vegetative fragments which act as propagules in C. helmsii (Preston and Croft, 1997), although regrowth from stem fragments is assumed to be a major factor in the dispersal strategy of the species. It currently threatens one of the six remaining sites in the UK of the Red Data Book species brown gallingale Cyperus fuscus.
    Atlas Change index N/A
    Cultivation date 1878
    First date in wild in GB 1960
    10km2 occurences in GB 268
    Action proposed Eradication on selected sites of nature conservation importance
    Create Myriophyllum free zones & maintain Scotland as a Myriophyllum free zone
    Remove plant from sale
    Place on Schedule 9 Part II

    9. Pistia stratiotes Water lettuce
    Origin South America
    Description of the problem A free-floating plant with thick leaves and long dense roots, which when introduced to North America caused extensive weed management problems. Observed in Nottingham in 1999, but unlikely to overwinter at the moment
    Atlas Change index N/A
    Cultivation date Not known
    First date in wild in GB -
    10km2 occurences in GB 0
    Action proposed Early detection and eradication
    Remove plant from sale

    10. Salvinia molesta Giant salvinia
    Origin Brazil
    Description of the problem This free-floating aquatic fern is one of the most loathed plants in the US. It has spread to many of the aquatic systems as far north as North Carolina. It has already been spotted in the UK in Lincolnshire. S. auriculata is much prettier than S. molesta and it will not be long before it is also stocked
    Atlas Change index N/A
    Cultivation date Not known
    First date in wild in GB -
    10km2 occurences in GB 0
    Action proposed Early detection and eradication
    Remove plant from sale

    The plants we should be really careful with are the ones that have been placed on the Schedule 9 list as these have shown the ability to be very invasive and cause quite serious problems either to native species or the waterways themselves. The other species are ones that we should be careful when disposing of them or make sure we don't keep them anywhere where they could possibly get into the outside environment. If everyone did this then their use in our tropical tanks wouldn't be a problem and the recommendations to remove these plants from sale could be lifted.
     
  2. plantbrain

    plantbrain Expert

    Messages:
    1,949
    I think many of them will not survive the winters in the UK.
    In parts of the USA, some are illegal, where as other locations, they are not.

    Still, good education, awareness and we all know how frigging weedy they become when given good conditions........always discuss these issues with Pond owners, they tend to be the most guilty party.

    Regards,
    Tom Barr
     
  3. beeky

    beeky Member

    Messages:
    879
    Location:
    Chippenham, Wiltshire
    I recognise a few as being common pond plants - water hyacinth, parrots feather etc.

    Although we still get temperatures below freezing, our winters are becoming increasingly mild. Just a couple of years ago, we had very little frost and daffodils were flowering in December! Daisies in lawns were a sight in the spring, now they are year round.

    It is quite common now for gardeners to grow bannana palms and cannas outside year round, but 10 years ago they would never have survived. In the south west especially they have very mild winters.
     
  4. Wolfenrook

    Wolfenrook Member

    Messages:
    336
    Location:
    West Midlands UK
    I live not far from Walsall in the West Midlands (I live in south staffordshire), and in the canal there you can see a perfect example of an invasive, none native, plant species going wild! The canal there is PACKED with parrot's feather, and I don't just mean a couple of stems, I mean about a mile of canal filled with the stuff.

    Azolla is another plant that I have seen growing quite happily in UK waters.

    That said however, no plant is a threat so long as it is disposed of properly. It's when irresponsible aquarium and pond owners dump things in the wild that the trouble starts. Or in cases like Azolla it can cling to the legs of water fowl that visit garden ponds.

    Ade
     
  5. GreenNeedle

    GreenNeedle Member

    Messages:
    2,706
    Location:
    Lincoln UK
    I dump my general pruning waste on the compost heap. Nowhere near any rivers, canals, lakes or ponds living uphill. Anything good goes to in buy/sell/swap
     
  6. Dan Crawford

    Dan Crawford Founder Staff Member

    Messages:
    3,266
    Location:
    Daventry, Northants
    jeremy gay and I have been discussing a river nene clean up but maybe this would be time better spent. Who would be up for a mission down a river/canal disposing of invasive species? We could only do so much but a little is better than nothing.......
     
  7. Egmel

    Egmel Member

    Messages:
    724
    Location:
    Guildford, Surrey, UK
    Sounds like a fun day out... could make it a PFK/UKaps thing, organise a time/place and see who turns up. Take plenty of photos and there's bound to be an article in it ;)
     
  8. Ed Seeley

    Ed Seeley Member

    Messages:
    3,262
    Location:
    Nottingham
    I'd be there for that. If we offered to get rid of the Impatiens glandulifera along a section of the Trent near me the conservation groups would love us forever!!!
     
  9. GreenNeedle

    GreenNeedle Member

    Messages:
    2,706
    Location:
    Lincoln UK
    Hold your horses. This is the Nanny State UK.

    You are not allowed to endanger yourself by going near rivers.
    You are not allowed to touch the environment agencies property
    And you are definately not allowed to do anything that the government could pay £40k per person to do and they are not allowed until after a £20 million 'independent' consultancy firm says 'yes that indeed is not native')
    But you can stand from 100 yards and take pictures to send with a letter of complaint to your local MP who will then say that he/she is representing the matter on your behalf for you to never hear about again.

    Seriously though I would check to make sure that you are legally allowed to do this before even considering it. It may be that even if they say you can that they will insist on a specialist overseeing it to make sure that no native species are removed and also Health and Safety no doubt will want to get in on the act. Remember it takes 40 people to change a light bulb legally in the UK these days.

    Andy
     
  10. Egmel

    Egmel Member

    Messages:
    724
    Location:
    Guildford, Surrey, UK
    How about you delete that post and we'll claim ignorance ;) :twisted:
     
  11. GreenNeedle

    GreenNeedle Member

    Messages:
    2,706
    Location:
    Lincoln UK
    as the law states, ignorance is no excuse...........

    .........unless you are a jonny foreigner, getting stopped by the police for no insurance, tax etc and then putting on the old 'no understand, no speaking english' crap.

    Not racist as people on her know (my wife is portuguese) but I have actually sen this happen whilst walking down a street when a rusky (more likely from one of their ex countries I guess.) got stopped, followed the no understand line and the copper gave up and drove off. Then the rusky started laughing and joking with his friend (who turned out to be english) in english.

    Alas unles Joe and London are with you (to practice the above move) then for us we have no excuse. lol

    I seem to be ranting all the time these days. lol

    Andy
     
  12. aaronnorth

    aaronnorth Member

    Messages:
    3,955
    Location:
    worksop, nottinghamshire
    I laughed at this then thought, well half of it is actually true :lol:
     
  13. Themuleous

    Themuleous Member

    Messages:
    4,126
    Location:
    Aston, Oxfordshire
    Count me in for a day trip to the river!

    Sam
     

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